Heart Failure

The term cardiac failure is commonly used in analogy at the end of cardiac failure. Heart failure (SC) is a complex clinical syndrome that occurs when a functional or structural anomaly of the heart changes its ability to contract or relax. Therefore, the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body or can only do it through an overload of work. Heart failure is the common point of contact for many diseases: ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, valvular heartbeat, arterial hypertension, radio and chemotherapy treatments, use of toxic substances. Ventricular dysfunction is triggered by myocardial structural damage which, in the final stage, results in ventricular dilatation, resulting in reduced contractile capacity. Symptoms and fundamental signs of heart failure include: asthenia, dyspnoea, easy fatigue, hydro-saline retention and peripheral edema. Such manifestations can limit stress tolerance. The most commonly used rating system to quantify the degree of functional impairment caused by heart failure was developed by the New York Heart Association (NYHA). This classification assigns patients to one of the four functional classes depending on the degree of physical activity necessary for the symptoms to manifest. The diagnostic route of patients with heart failure starts with the objective examination and the history and uses instrumental and hematochemical examinations to characterize myocardial function and structure (ECG, echocardiogram, RX-chest) and evaluate the ability to exercise Patient (cardiopulmonary test). In specific cases, II level examinations (coronary artery, RMN, right heart catheterisation) are particularly useful. Treatment of heart failure is aimed at improving symptoms, preventing progression of heart failure, and reducing mortality. Because heart failure is a complex syndrome, the therapeutic approach requires different strategies aimed at different goals. The treatment provides a number of general recommendations on lifestyle adaptation, drug therapy with the use of various classes of drugs (ACE inhibitors / sartans, B-blockers, diuretics, antialdosteronics, nitrates, antiaggregants and anticoagulants etc. ) And non-pharmacological measures (resynchronization therapy, ICD implant, etc.).

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